KAJIAN NILAI TUKAR PETANI TANAMAN PANGAN UTAMA DI KECAMATAN AJIBARANG KABUPATEN BANYUMAS

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JudulKAJIAN NILAI TUKAR PETANI TANAMAN PANGAN UTAMA DI KECAMATAN AJIBARANG KABUPATEN BANYUMAS
Publication TypeStudent Thesis
Year of Publication2012
AuthorsIbrahim MF
AdvisorsSundari, Setyadji K
DegreeS1 Sosek (Agribisnis)
UniversityUniversitas Jenderal Soedirman
Abstract

Komoditas tanaman pangan mempunyai potensi untuk dikembangkan,
karena mayoritas penduduk di Kecamatan Ajibarang Kabupaten Banyumas hidup
dari sektor pertanian. Program pembangunan pertanian pada hakekatnya
bertujuan untuk mencukupi kebutuhan subsisten petani khususnya, dan untuk
mensejahterakan masyarakat petani pada umumnya. Sehubungan dengan upaya
terhadap perbaikan kesejahteraan petani, maka perlu dilakukan kajian Nilai Tukar
Petani (NTP) yang merupakan tolok ukur tingkat kesejahteraan petani. Nilai NTP
mampu memberikan gambaran kesejahteraan petani. NTP mencakup nilai tukar
komoditas pertanian dan nilai tukar pendapatan petani yang diperoleh dari indeks
harga yang diterima dan dibayar petani. Komoditas pertanian yang dianalisis
adalah padi, jagung, ketela pohon, kacang tanah, dan kedelai karena kelima
komoditas ini merupakan komoditas andalan di Kecamatan Ajibarang Kabupaten
Banyumas. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah 1) mengkaji nilai tukar petani, khususnya
tanaman pangan yaitu padi, jagung, ketela pohon, kacang tanah, dan kedelai, 2)
mengkaji faktor-faktor yang berpengaruh langsung terhadap nilai tukar petani, 3)
mengkaji faktor-faktor yang menjadi penghambat utama dalam peningkatan
kesejahteraan petani.
Penelitian dilaksanakan di Desa Darmakradenan dan Tipar Kidul
Kecamatan Ajibarang Kabupaten Banyumas, pengambilan data dilaksanakan dari
tanggal 1 Februari sampai dengan tanggal 1 Maret 2012. Metode penelitian yang
digunakan adalah survai dan pengambilan sampel secara Two Stage Sampling.
Jumlah responden yang diwawancarai sebanyak 50 orang. Metode analisis yang
digunakan adalah analisis deskriptif dan analisis nilai tukar (perumusan
Laspeyres).
Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa komoditas jagung memiliki Nilai
Tukar Petani (NTP) di atas 100, sedangkan komoditas pangan yang dikaji
lainnya memiliki NTP di bawah 100. Hal ini menunjukkan petani komoditas
pangan tersebut hanya dapat memenuhi kebutuhan bahan pangan serta
transportasi dan jasa keuangan. Faktor-faktor yang menghambat dalam
kesejahteraan petani adalah harga komoditas yang masih rendah serta pelaksanan
panen yang kurang baik.

Food crops commodities have a potential to be developed, because the
majority of people in Kecamatan Ajibarang Kabupaten Banyumas lives from
agricultural sector. Agricultural development program essentially aims to meet
the needs of subsistence farmers in particularly, and to make their life prosperous
in general. In correlation with the efforts to improve the welfare of farmers, it is
necessary to examine The Farmer's Exchange Rate (ER) which is a measurement
of the farmer’s welfare level. The ER’s values can provide an overview of the
farmer’s welfare. The ER’s includes the exchange values of agricultural
commodities and the exchange rate of farmer’s income which derived from the
received index of prices and paid by farmers. Agricultural commodities that been
analyzed were rice, corn, cassava, peanuts, and soybeans because those
commodities were the prominent commodities in Kecamatan Ajibarang
Kabupaten Banyumas. The aims of this research were 1) Examine The Farmer's
Exchange Rate, particularly in food crops, especially rice, maize, cassava,
peanuts, and soybeans, 2) Examine the factors that directly influenced to The
Farmer's Exchange Rate, 3) Examine the factors that become the major obstacle
on improving the welfare of farmers.
Research was conducted in Desa Darmakradenan and Tipar Kidul
Kecamatan Ajibarang, Kabupaten Banyumas. Data collection took place from
February 1st until March 1st, 2012. The methods were used was survey and the
sampling was conducted by Two Stage Sampling Method. The number of
respondents who were interviewed as much as 50 peoples. The analytical method
that been used were descriptive analysis and exchange rate analysis (Laspeyres
formulation).
The results of this research showed that corn commodity mostly had the
Exchange Rate (ER) more than 100, while the other commodities were lower than
100. This indicates that the farmer’s of food commodities could only fulfill their
need of food also transportation and financial services. The factors which
impeded in farmers prosperity was the prices of the commodities that still low and
also lack of yield implementation.